9 avatars of Goddess Durga worshipped on the 9 days of Navratri Celebrations in India

9 avatars of Goddess Durga worshipped on the 9 days of Navratri Celebrations in India

Navaratr (नवरात्रि), also spelt Navratri or Navarathri, is a nine nights (and ten days) Hindu festival, celebrated in the autumn every year. It is observed in the honour of the divine feminine Devi (Durga). The festival is celebrated in the bright half of the Hindu calendar month Ashvin, which typically falls in the Gregorian months of September and October.

Navadurga (नवदुर्गा, Nine forms of Durga), are nine manifestations of the Goddess Durga in Hinduism, especially worshipped during the festival of Navratri where each of the nine manifested forms is consecutively venerated throughout all the nine nights. The nine manifested forms of Goddess Durga (Gauri) or (Parvati) are Shailaputri, Brahmacharini, Chandraghanta, Kushmanda, Skandamata, Katyayini, Kaalratri, Mahagauri and Siddhidhatri.

Let's know more about Each Avatar


Shailputri ( शैलपुत्री )



Overview

Shailaputri, daughter of the mountains) is a manifestation of the Hindu goddess, Durga and is one of the first Navadurga's venerated during the first day of Navratri. She is also known as Sati,Bhavani, Parvati or Hemavati. Mother Shailaputri is the absolute form of Mother Nature..


Iconography

Goddess Shailaputri is depicted with two hands and has a crescent moon on her forehead. She holds a trident in her right hand and a lotus flower in the left. She rides on mount Nandi (bull)..


Prayers

Mantra

ॐ देवी शैलपुत्र्यै नमः॥
Om Devi Shailaputryai Namah॥

Prarthana

वन्दे वाञ्छितलाभाय चन्द्रार्धकृतशेखराम्। वृषारूढां शूलधरां शैलपुत्रीं यशस्विनीम्॥ Vande Vanchhitalabhaya Chandrardhakritashekharam। Vrisharudham Shuladharam Shailaputrim Yashasvinim॥

Stuti

या देवी सर्वभू‍तेषु माँ शैलपुत्री रूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नमः॥ Ya Devi Sarvabhuteshu Maa Shailaputri Rupena Samsthita। Namastasyai Namastasyai Namastasyai Namo Namah॥


Brahmacharini ( ब्रह्मचारिणी )



Overview

Brahamcharini is the name of the second aspect of the goddess Durga (Parvati). The goddess is worshipped on the second day of Navratri.


Iconography

The goddess Brahmacharini wears white clothes, holds a japa mala (rosary) in her right hand and Kamandal, a water utensil in her left hand.


Prayers

Mantra

ॐ देवी ब्रह्मचारिण्यै नमः॥
Om Devi Brahmacharinyai Namah॥

Prarthana

दधाना कर पद्माभ्यामक्षमाला कमण्डलू। देवी प्रसीदतु मयि ब्रह्मचारिण्यनुत्तमा॥
Dadhana Kara Padmabhyamakshamala Kamandalu। Devi Prasidatu Mayi Brahmacharinyanuttama॥

Stuti

या देवी सर्वभू‍तेषु माँ ब्रह्मचारिणी रूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नमः॥
Ya Devi Sarvabhuteshu Maa Brahmacharini Rupena Samsthita। Namastasyai Namastasyai Namastasyai Namo Namah॥


Chandraghanta ( चंद्रघंटा )



Overview

Chandraghanta is the third form of Goddess Durga. Her name Chandra-Ghanta, means "one who has a half-moon shaped like a bell. Her third eye is always opened and she always ready for war against demons". She is also known as Chandrakhanda, Chandika or Rannchandi. Her worship takes place on the third day of Navaratri(the nine divine nights of Navadurga). She is believed to reward people with her grace, bravery and courage. By her grace all the sins, distresses, physical sufferings, mental tribulations and ghostly hurdles of the devotees are eradicated.


Iconography

Goddess Chandraghanta mounts on the tigress. She wears the semi-circular moon (Chandra) on her forehead. The half-moon on her forehead looks like the bell (Ghanta) and because of that she is known as Chandra-Ghanta.


Prayers

Mantra

ॐ देवी चन्द्रघण्टायै नमः॥
Om Devi Chandraghantayai Namah॥

Prarthana

पिण्डज प्रवरारूढा चण्डकोपास्त्रकैर्युता। प्रसादं तनुते मह्यम् चन्द्रघण्टेति विश्रुता॥
Pindaja Pravararudha Chandakopastrakairyuta। Prasadam Tanute Mahyam Chandraghanteti Vishruta॥

Stuti

या देवी सर्वभू‍तेषु माँ चन्द्रघण्टा रूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नमः॥
Ya Devi Sarvabhuteshu Maa Chandraghanta Rupena Samsthita। Namastasyai Namastasyai Namastasyai Namo Namah॥


Kushmanda ( कूष्माण्डा )



Overview

Kushmanda is a Hindu goddess, credited with creating the world with her divine smile. Followers of the Kalikula tradition believe her to be the fourth form of the Hindu goddess Durga. Her name signals her main role: Ku means "a little", Ushma means "warmth" or "energy" and Anda means "cosmic egg". Kushmanda is worshiped on the fourth day of the festival of Navratri (nine nights of Navadurga) and She is believed to improve health and bestow wealth and strength.


Iconography

Goddess Siddhidatri rides on the lioness. She is depicted with eight hands. She has Kamandal, Dhanush, Bada and Kamal in the right hands and Amrit Kalash, Jap Mala, Gada and Chakra


Prayers

Mantra

ॐ देवी कूष्माण्डायै नमः॥
Om Devi Kushmandayai Namah॥

Prarthana

सुरासम्पूर्ण कलशं रुधिराप्लुतमेव च। दधाना हस्तपद्माभ्यां कूष्माण्डा शुभदास्तु मे॥
Surasampurna Kalasham Rudhiraplutameva Cha। Dadhana Hastapadmabhyam Kushmanda Shubhadastu Me॥

Stuti

या देवी सर्वभू‍तेषु माँ कूष्माण्डा रूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नमः॥
Ya Devi Sarvabhuteshu Maa Kushmanda Rupena Samsthita। Namastasyai Namastasyai Namastasyai Namo Namah॥


Skandamata ( स्कन्दमाता )



Overview

Skandamātā (Sanskrit:स्कन्दमाता) is the fifth form of Hindu Goddess Durga. Literally meaning Mother of Skanda, her name comes from word, Skanda is another name for war god and her son Kartikeya and Mata is the term for mother. As one of the Navadurga, Her worship takes place on the fifth day of Navaratri (the nine divine nights of Navadurga).


Iconography

Goddess Skandamata mounts on the ferocious lion. She carries baby Murugan in her lap. Lord Murugan is also known as Kartikeya and brother of Lord Ganesha. Goddess Skandamata is depicted with four hands. She carries lotus flowers in her upper two hands. She holds baby Murugan in one of her right hand and keeps the other right hand in Abhaya Mudra. She sits on lotus flower and because of that Skandamata is also known as Goddess Padmasana.


Prayers

Mantra

ॐ देवी स्कन्दमातायै नमः॥
Om Devi Skandamatayai Namah॥

Prarthana

सिंहासनगता नित्यं पद्माञ्चित करद्वया। शुभदास्तु सदा देवी स्कन्दमाता यशस्विनी॥
Simhasanagata Nityam Padmanchita Karadvaya। Shubhadastu Sada Devi Skandamata Yashasvini॥

Stuti

या देवी सर्वभू‍तेषु माँ स्कन्दमाता रूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नमः॥
Ya Devi Sarvabhuteshu Ma Skandamata Rupena Samsthita। Namastasyai Namastasyai Namastasyai Namo Namah॥


Katyayani ( कात्यायनी )



Overview

Katyayani is the sixth form amongst Navadurga or the nine forms of Hindu goddess Parvati (Shakti), worshipped during the Navratri celebrations. This is the second name given for Parvati in amarakosha, the Sanskrit lexicon(uma katyayani gaouri kali haimavathi iiswari). In Shaktism she is associated with the fierce forms of Shakti or Durga, a Warrior goddess, which also includes Bhadrakali and Chandika, and traditionally she is associated with the colour red, as with Goddess Durga, the primordial form of Shakti, a fact also mentioned in Patanjali's Mahabhashya on Pāṇini, written in 2nd century BCE.

She is first mentioned in the Taittiriya Aranyaka part of the Yajurveda. Skanda Purana mentions her being created out of the spontaneous anger of Gods, which eventually led to slaying the demon, Mahishasura, mounted on the lion given to her by Goddess Parvati. This occasion is celebrated during the annual Durga Puja festival in most parts of India.

Her exploits are described in the Devi-Bhagavata Purana and Devi Mahatmyam, part of the Markandeya Purana attributed to sage Markandeya Rishi, who wrote it in Sanskrit ca. 400-500 CE. Over a period of time, her presence was also felt in Buddhist and Jain texts and several Tantric text, especially the Kalika-Purana (10th century), which mentions Uddiyana or Odradesa (Odisha), as the seat of Goddess Katyayani and Lord Jagannath [citation needed].

In Hindu traditions like Yoga and Tantra, she is ascribed to the sixth Ajna Chakra or the Third eye chakra and her blessings are invoked by concentrating on this point.


Iconography

Goddess Katyayani rides on the magnificent lion and depicted with four hands. Goddess Katyayani carries lotus flower and sword in her left hands and keeps her right hands in Abhaya and Varada Mudras.


Prayers

Mantra

ॐ देवी कात्यायन्यै नमः॥
Om Devi Katyayanyai Namah॥

Prarthana

चन्द्रहासोज्ज्वलकरा शार्दूलवरवाहना। कात्यायनी शुभं दद्याद् देवी दानवघातिनी॥
Chandrahasojjvalakara Shardulavaravahana। Katyayani Shubham Dadyad Devi Danavaghatini॥

Stuti

या देवी सर्वभू‍तेषु माँ कात्यायनी रूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नमः॥
Ya Devi Sarvabhuteshu Ma Katyayani Rupena Samsthita। Namastasyai Namastasyai Namastasyai Namo Namah॥


Kalaratri ( कालरात्रि )



Overview

Kalaratri (sometimes spelled Kaalratri) is the seventh of the nine forms of the Goddess Durga, known as the Navadurga. She is first referenced in the Durga Saptashati, Chapters 81-93 of the Markandeya Purana, the earliest known literature on the Goddess Durga. Kalaratri is widely regarded as one of the many destructive forms of the Mother Goddess, which include Kali, Mahakali, Bhadrakali, Bhairavi, Mrityu, Rudrani, Chamunda, Chandi and Durga.

It is not uncommon to find the names, Kali and Kalaratri being used interchangeably, although these two deities are argued to be separate entities by some. According to David Kinsley, Kali is first mentioned in Hinduism as a distinct goddess around 600 CE. Chronologically then, Kaalratri (described textually in the Mahabharata, dated 300 BCE - 300 CE) predates but most likely, informs, present representations of Kali.

Kaalratri is traditionally worshipped during the nine nights of Navratri celebrations. The seventh day of Navratri pooja (Hindu prayer ritual) in particular is dedicated to her and she is considered the fiercest form of the Mother Goddess, her appearance itself invoking fear. This form of Goddess is believed to be the destroyer of all demon entities, ghosts, spirits and negative energies, who flee upon knowing of her arrival.

The Saudhikagama, an ancient Tantric text referenced in the Silpa Prakasha, describes Goddess Kalaratri as being the goddess that rules the night portion of every day and night. She is also associated with the crown chakra (also known as the sahasrara chakra), thereby giving the invoker, siddhis and niddhis (particularly, knowledge, power and wealth).

Kaalratri is also known as Shubankari (शुभंकरी) - meaning auspicious/doing good in Sanskrit, due to the belief that she always provides auspicious results to her devotees. Hence, it is believed that she makes her devotees fearless.

Other less well-known names of Goddess Kaalratri include Raudri and Dhumorna.


Iconography

Goddess Kalaratri complexion is dark black and She rides on a donkey. She is depicted with four hands. Her right hands are in Abhaya and Varada Mudra and She carries sword and the deadly iron hook in her left hands.


Prayers

Mantra

ॐ देवी कालरात्र्यै नमः॥
Om Devi Kalaratryai Namah॥

Prarthana

एकवेणी जपाकर्णपूरा नग्ना खरास्थिता। लम्बोष्ठी कर्णिकाकर्णी तैलाभ्यक्त शरीरिणी॥ वामपादोल्लसल्लोह लताकण्टकभूषणा। वर्धन मूर्धध्वजा कृष्णा कालरात्रिर्भयङ्करी॥
Ekaveni Japakarnapura Nagna Kharasthita। Lamboshthi Karnikakarni Tailabhyakta Sharirini॥ Vamapadollasalloha Latakantakabhushana। Vardhana Murdhadhwaja Krishna Kalaratrirbhayankari॥

Stuti

या देवी सर्वभू‍तेषु माँ कालरात्रि रूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नमः॥
Ya Devi Sarvabhuteshu Ma Kalaratri Rupena Samsthita। Namastasyai Namastasyai Namastasyai Namo Namah॥


Mahagauri ( महागौरी )



Overview

Mahagauri (Devnagari: महागौरी) is the eighth manifestation of goddess Durga and amongst the Navadurgas. Mahagauri is worshipped on the eighth day of Navratri. According to Hindu mythology, Goddess Mahagauri has the power to fulfill all the desires of her devotees. The one who worships the goddess gets relief from all the sufferings in life. Mahagauri has four arms. Her right arm is in the pose of allaying fear and right lower hand holds a trident in it. She holds a tambourine in her left upper arm and the lower one is in the form of a blessing.


Iconography

The mount of Goddess Mahagauri as well as Goddess Shailputri is bull and because of that she is also known as Vrisharudha (वृषारूढ़ा). Goddess Mahagauri is depicted with four hands. She carries Trishul in one right hand and keeps the second right hand in Abhaya Mudra. She adorns Damaru in the one left hand and keeps the second left hand in Varada Mudra.


Prayers

Mantra

ॐ देवी महागौर्यै नमः॥
Om Devi Mahagauryai Namah॥

Prarthana

श्वेते वृषेसमारूढा श्वेताम्बरधरा शुचिः। महागौरी शुभं दद्यान्महादेव प्रमोददा॥
Shwete Vrishesamarudha Shwetambaradhara Shuchih। Mahagauri Shubham Dadyanmahadeva Pramodada॥

Stuti

या देवी सर्वभू‍तेषु माँ महागौरी रूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नमः॥
Ya Devi Sarvabhuteshu Maa Mahagauri Rupena Samsthita। Namastasyai Namastasyai Namastasyai Namo Namah॥


Siddhidatri ( सिद्धिदात्री )



Overview

Siddhidhatri is the ninth form of the Goddess Durga, the meaning of her name is as follows: Siddhi means supernatural power or meditative ability, and Dhatri means giver or awarder. She is worshipped on the ninth day of Navaratri (nine nights of Navadurga); she fulfills all the divine aspirations and completes the mundane.

In this form Durga is seated on a lotus and is four-armed. She holds a lotus, mace, Sudarshana Chakra and shankha. In this form Durga removes ignorance and she provides the knowledge to realize that or Brahman. She is surrounded by Siddhas, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Devas (Gods) and Asura (Demons) worship her. The Siddhi that she provides is the realization that only she exists. She is the mistress of all achievements and perfections.


Iconography

Goddess Siddhidatri sits on Kamal and rides on the lion. She is depicted with four hands. She has Gada in the one right hand, Chakra in the other right hand, lotus flower in the one left hand and Shankh in the other left hand.


Prayers

Mantra

ॐ देवी सिद्धिदात्र्यै नमः॥
Om Devi Siddhidatryai Namah॥

Prarthana

सिद्ध गन्धर्व यक्षाद्यैरसुरैरमरैरपि। सेव्यमाना सदा भूयात् सिद्धिदा सिद्धिदायिनी॥
Siddha Gandharva Yakshadyairasurairamarairapi। Sevyamana Sada Bhuyat Siddhida Siddhidayini॥

Stuti

या देवी सर्वभू‍तेषु माँ सिद्धिदात्री रूपेण संस्थिता। नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै नमो नमः॥
Ya Devi Sarvabhuteshu Maa Siddhidatri Rupena Samsthita। Namastasyai Namastasyai Namastasyai Namo Namah॥


Note: With input from Wikipedia

Sinchita

Sinchita Sur

Creative Personality by Profession and Heart

A creative personality by profession and heart, finds fulfilment through digital medium. By building concepts to mood boards to execution of ideas.

A vivacious person looking for beauty in every aspect of both animate and inanimate things. In her world she is often triggered by children and their colourful outlook. She leads a digital team as the chief Strategist in Delhi and finds time for social causes in her private time.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *